Deva Citadel - details and images
Secular historical and architectural monument, the fortress of Deva was built in the mid thirteenth century Citadel Hill, the place of a Dacian settlement and is mentioned in a document type oppidum in 1269 with "Castrum Deva. The first building works dating from the early years of the eleventh century, after the defeat by the Hungarians to the Duke of Morisena Ahtum (Cenad), when colonialism came first from the west.
Deva Citadel was one of the most important cities of Transylvania. Following the history, the city had acted as defense against the Tartars and other enemies who sought employment potential of the region was a refuge for peasant uprisings against the nobility, noble residence, prison and garrison, provided protection to the passengers and traders traveling along Mures Valley.
The fortress was princely residence since 1307, and in the fourteenth and fifteenth century Wallachian military district having jurisdiction four Romanian counties. Since 1453 Hunyadi turned a noble castle, making it among the strongest fortress in Transylvania.
During the Turkish invasion in 1550, 1552 and 1557 suffered Ottoman sieges, the fortress was occupied in 1557 by Sultan Suleiman the Great, who surrendered to Queen Isabella of Hungary and his son John Sigismund. Sixteenth-century fortress and worked as a prison, there is imprisoned humanist David Ferencz, the founder of the Unitarian church and nobility leader Moses Secklers tansilvanene hostile imperial power. The cell in which he was imprisoned David Ferencz was placed in 1948 a commemorative plaque.
Until 1687 when it was occupied by Austrian troops for the second time, the city has been in possession of all: family Hunedorestilor Francis Gesthy, the princes of Transylvania (Gabriel Bethlem, Bethlem Stefan, Gh Rakokzi I, A. Barcsay).
During the rebellion of 1782 the city was temporarily occupied by the peasants from Dobra, and besieged by the peasants revolted in 1786, led by Korea, Hen and Crisan. In the late eighteenth century the city lost its strategic importance, being left in the deserted, but regained importance after 1817, when King Francis I going through Deva decided to restore it.
The construction lasted over a year, spending is more than 216 000 florins. In 1848 it became the seat of imperial troops in August 1849 was devastated by a powerful explosion at the ammunition depot. Following Deva fortress was abandoned and today there are only ruins.
The fortress can be reached from the city park, climbing the 113 steps to the end which is about two alleys. Starting in June 2005, Fortress can access and cable car.
Inclined lift lift is only in Romania, and in terms of route length (278 meters) and the difference of level (158 meters) is the first in Europe. With 16 seats and the system using inclined plane, cable car provides access to the city's tourists. The plant provides mechanical connection from the departure station, located at elevation 180 meters from the fortress Deva intermediate platform located at elevation 342 meters, ie a difference of about 160 meters. Control is by cable car station, but also by radio and telephone, this can be achieved even at the headquarters in Austria. Lift receive three brake systems, making sure to offer passengers maximum.
Deva ruins, the Castle Hill, have been and remain an important tourist attraction. In recent years the concept of a development program, very controversial, to put it to good use and make it accessible to all ages: the installation of a lift and a terrace arrangement inside the fortress (later abandoned at the insistence of the Museum of Deva). Once up near the ruins of the city and surrounding landscape reveals.
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