Directed Sarmizegetusa - details and images
Sarmizegetusa was the largest craft center, and as a cultural-political and religious capital of the Dacian state was a key factor in economic prosperity. Kings lived here, officials, officers of the royal chancery, a part of the aristocracy, artisans, merchants, craftsmen builders, doctors, etc.. From a structural point of view, proves to be the capital of Dacia had three components: civil settlement, and the sacred city.
Access from the Mures valley to Sarmizegetusa was controlled device and the cities and Blidaru Costesti-fortress, and many solitary towers located on both sides of the road. Cucuis-fortified settlement from Golu, the city's Peak Hulpe (still unexplored), and probably plenty of towers, not located yet, barau access from the valley and Sibisel Cucuisului. Progressing from the west of the city was protected from linear fortification and Red Rock, dam type, from Cioclovina-Ponorici. Add to these cities from Capalna, Banita and Tilisca which also blocked the paths to the heart of the Dacian kingdom. After overcoming all these obstacles, the attackers were met by reinforcements capital.
Sarmizegetusa fortress was built in the only place on the Hill right confiduratie Gradistei concept of empowerment with the Dacians, share around 1200, both before the district dominated area west of the civil settlement and in relation Sarmizegetusa sacred precincts of the capital. The walls surrounding the citadel hill, following the configuration of land and built in traditional style - "murus dacicus. On the west side, close to the maximum quota of pillboxes were built, as typical of the fortress and Blidaru-Costes. It is unclear if the city had bastions, as the Romans further intervention may have led to their abolition. Inside the fortress were discovered only wooden barracks for the defenders. In accordance with the peace concluded after the first Dacian War, part of the walls were dismantled.
Around the second conflict were reinaltate. City suffered major damage during the final siege and reconstruction Romanian, noticeable almost everywhere, did not observe any Dacian wall route or construction technique. New track surface protected by double walls.
In the wall rebuilt and extended by the Romans are found frequently Extremely slabs and blocks of stone in the road, channel segments, limestone columns, drums, pieces of sky, frames and columns drums andesite Sarmizgetusei taken from civilian buildings, which Construction can only suggest the former grandeur of Dacian.
Sarmizegetusa fortification of the acropolis was not different for a civil settlement, which consists of household construction, with capture and transportation facilities and drainage water from the rainfall, with shops and amenities of the most diverse. Although he received intensive archaeological research, most roofs were not investigated. We know clearly that the entire hill was excavated and terraced the Gauls, as in many cases artificial terraces supported by large walls. In a noble household if there was water, transported through aqueducts that are operational today. Unfortunately, almost all civilian buildings were built of perishable materials, that are poorly preserved. Usually placed peitrele were kept at their base, remnants of walls, charred poles, clay floors and hearths.
Workshops have been constructed almost entirely of wood, as a result was not always possible to establish their plan or construction details. It is known so far, they have worked three workshops - one for reducing iron ore and two blacksmith - and smaller ones. In the first workshop mentioned eight ovens have been discovered in one of the blacksmith and have discovered two cutitoaie, stamped Herren, produced in a workshop in Aquileia in northern Italy.
Sarmizegetusa, White Girls and probably the girl bands, which are the largest civil settlements Orastie Mountains area, we are dealing with compact settlements, spread across large areas, at considerable distances from springs or streams, imposing Maintenance of such a system distrbuire potabile.Aici water, water of three springs were captured and transported through the pipeline toward settling large tiles from which it was passed on, also through pipelines to homes or sanctuaries workshops. To evacuate water from rainfall and to avoid entering her building were digging drainage channels. The sacred area were built hewn limestone channels.
All the sacred buildings of Sarmizegetusa focuses on two large artificial terraces. There are two types of sanctuaries, rectangular and circular. All were built in the time limited by the rule Burebista and Decebal. The first phase includes the lifting of limestone buildings and the second of andesite. Inside the large circular sanctuary sacred observed, whose appearance is temporarily altered by the presence of randomly disposed wooden pillars inside the communist period, to give a "face" most spectacular building. There are three shrines dreptughiulare, one size impressing a small circular sanctuary and a rectangular sanctuary. Spectacular is the so-called "andesite Sun" - a central disc with a diameter of 1.46 meters continued zce rays, trapezoidal, but the outer edges carved in arcs, each 2.76 meters long. Stuck with one end of the outer edge of the altar is a long-range, toward the north.
Looking at the shrines of Sarmizegetusa became obvious to archaeologists and historians as they were used to measure time, a kind of temple calendar. The group consists of two shrines, called the small and large circular sanctuary circular.Micul sanctuary consists of 114 pieces, of which 13 are slabs that separate groups of 13 columns with the following structure: 8grupe as 8 poles, a group of seven columns each , 3 groups of 8 poles and 6 poles gupa. In total 104 posts and 13 slabs.
The great circular temple, consists of three concentric circles and an apse construction (horseshoe-shaped closed) centrally located, with an axis of symmetry and an axis of the thresholds. The outer circle consists of andesite blocks 104 attached to one another, the next circle, joined the first, consists of 210 pieces, of which 30 are paving the separation of 30 groups each with six poles - a total of 180 posts and 30 slabs . The third circle is composed of four groups of four slabs that separate groups of columns - a total of 68 poles and 14 flags. Central apse is composed of two groups of slabs of pillars separating the two groups - a total of 34 poles and four slabs.
After research and especially the calculations, it was discovered that 47 of the circumference of the small sanctuary astronomical correspond to 13 years, after which a correction is needed for one day. It follows therefore that the Dacians had a calendar based on cycles of 13 years.
All of the calculations shows that Dacian year was 47 weeks. Small sanctuary is divided into 13 groups achieving a new year is beginning the first day of the Dacian only one group - a week. And all began 13 days of the 13 groups are within a cycle, once started the year. Years Dacian had a fixed number of days. Due to continuous rotation, the fact that each year has 47 weeks saptmani and two outstanding (only 7 and 6 days, compared to the usual number of eight days), number of days in a year varied between 364 and 367 days .
Following the central apse of the great sanctuary, it was concluded that the year was divided into three trimesters of 13, 21 and again 13 weeks (the two groups of columns containing: first and second 13 poles 21 poles). Interestingly, 21 weeks correspond to the "vegetative period" of several vines and other crops, the period was probably a distinct time of year, especially for a nation of farmers and shepherds.
Considering each slab of the apse that day mean for a course correction in 13 years, resulting higher unit time of each such cycle, namely 52 years peioada Dacian (4 stones - 4 corrections, 4 * 13 = 52).
Mean days in a year is 365.2307692 days Dacian, from tropical year is 365.242198 days as well. The difference between the Dacian and the tropical year after a cycle reaches totaling 13 years at 0.148574 days. This difference is correct, it seems, every 8th cycle, so for every 104-th year. Like I said the first circle of the great sanctuary contains all 104 blocks of andesite and time correction is secular. Which brings us to the fact that the Dacian century have 104 years.
Dacian calendar has the following main features:
is the equivalent of a pole = 1 day, they are so obvious in systems of sizes neintregi integers, they are designed, they are designed to remain inurma exact astronomical time and allow their correction unit (one day ) by the additive.
construction of small sanctuary of fluctuating lead times, system to ensure accuracy, using a full size 13-year cycle.
year always begins on the first day of the week and ends on the last day
error a day at 8840 years
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